Archive for the ‘Home Page Photo Story’ Category
Thank you to everyone who participated in our photo competition. We had many amazing entries; it was hard to choose the winners! After much deliberation, we reached decision on a first, second, and two third place winners.
First place goes to Amy Cannon for her photo of teaching students green chemistry principles and experiments. Dr. Cannon says: “Perhaps one of the most important things we do is work with K-12 students to inspire future scientists and hopefully future green chemists.” She will win a package of fresh body butter and green tea body cream from Dirty Beauty Natural Skincare.
Second place goes to Sarah Dickerson with her entry of a photo with her green cleaning products. Sarah explains: “One of the simple ways I incorporate green chemistry into my life is by preparing non-toxic cleansers using natural alternatives. In this photo, I’m preparing an all-purpose general cleaner that harnesses the cleaning power of vinegar and baking soda. For a fresh scent, I like to add lemons and fresh rosemary from my organic garden.” Sarah will win a box from Susie’s Boxes.
By Mana Sassanpour, 1/26/2011
After reading a book that mentioned the health benefits of ginkgo (leaf pictured right), I decided to see if there were any green chemistry related topics that involved this ancient and revered tree. The journal, Green Chemistry, has an article about a more efficient means of extracting the useful components of ginkgo (Qingyong Lang and Chien M. Wai Green Chem., 2003, 5, 415-420). The researchers developed a greener method of pressurized water extraction which is a “a more effective, selective, economical and environmentally benign technique.”
However, the article did not make clear WHY they were bothering to finding greener ways to extract these compounds – what does ginkgo do? I could pay £34 GBP ($52.50) to find out why, but I thought doing my own investigation would be more fun and less costly.
My research took me in several directions, including the Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants by Andrew Chevallier, Rebecca’s Natural Food Store in Charlottesville, VA, and to a friend, John Soong, who knows a little something about everything.
First, some history: the ginkgo tree dates back about 200 million years to the time of the dinosaurs. Second, my friend John Soong explained that he had grown up eating ginkgo nuts in a rice porridge called congee (left). According to him, the philosophy behind eating ginkgo in Chinese cuisine is that “because the ginkgo tree has survived and lived for so long, if we eat it we will have the same longevity.”
There may be some science behind this belief: the active ingredients in ginkgo are purported to work together to produce a positive effect on the human body. The key ingredients are flavonoids, ginkgolide, and bilobalides. The Encyclopedia claims that ginkgo “improves circulation of blood to the head” which in turn leads to improved memory and is given to people with dementia. Ginkgo is also good for asthma and as an anti-inflammatory. Therefore it is not surprising that ginkgo has been noted as one of the bestselling medicines in Germany.
After my literature search, I drove to Rebecca’s Natural Food Store where one of the employees gave me an impromptu “Ginkgo 101” course. She explained that ginkgo is also a blood thinner and can help reduce the possibility of a stroke. In addition, she said it is “good for capillaries and oxygen uptake especially for those who always have cold hands and feet.” Hmmm: maybe I should start taking ginkgo?
Of course we are not qualified to make judgments or give advice on the medicinal value of ginkgo, but it seems like ginkgo is a very interesting plant. With such a wide array of potential health applications and valuable compounds, it makes sense to find more sustainable and cost effective methods of extraction.
1. Pressurized water extraction (PWE) of terpene trilactones from Ginkgo biloba leaves. Qingyong Lang and Chien M. Wai. Green Chem., 2003, 5, 415-420. DOI: 10.1039/B300496C
2. Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants. By Andrew Chevallier – DK Pub. (1996) – Hardback – 336 pages – ISBN 0789410672
Hello All AGC fans! We are proud to announce our first ever competition. We have decided to have a photo contest, and we encourage each of you to participate!
The prompt is: “How do you incorporate green chemistry into your life?”
Please submit a single shot and a brief explanation of how you do this by March 1st 2012 to msassanpour@advancinggreenchem
There will be four winners! By submitting your photo to this contest you agree that AGC can use your submission on our website and on other green chemistry materials (don’t worry, we’ll give you full credit and publicity!).
Now, of course, here are the list of prizes:
1. Gift package from Dirty Beauty, nature-based skincare. Check out their facebook here!
2. Hand-decorated floral green box from Susan Li’s etsy store SusiesBoxes. Check out her facebook page here!
3. Hand-made steampunk candle-holder made of real clock parts from Lisa Schultheis’ etsy store earthluv.
4. Made by Mieka Olive Oil Soap. Check out Made by Mieka’s facebook page here!
For my third and final interview in the Virginia Tech series, I had the privilege of interviewing Dr. Felicia Etzkorn (pictured left), pioneer of the green chemistry course at Virginia Tech. The green chemistry course was her idea back in 2003. She and her colleague, Dr. Tim Long, decided to team-teach it just for fun. A couple of years later Dr. Etzkorn decided she was going to approach it more seriously. As a result, she had to write a course proposal for Virginia Tech’s course catalogue. The course was approved by three different curriculum committee levels. Afterwards, she developed course material and lectures, and taught the class for three years, from 2007 – 2009. She is excited to be teaching it again this Spring 2012.
Dr. Etzkorn also applies her passion for green chemistry to the local Blacksburg community. She designed a green science experiment for middle school students. Under the program, she brings the students into one of the labs at Virginia Tech to let them make their own polymer of lactic acid. The procedure allows them to make polylactic acid derived from soybeans, similar to a process used for biodegradable plastic containers for salads.
The students got a chance to come to Tech and get to do the experiment using solvent free polymerization and a non-toxic catalyst. First they had to stir and heat the mixture to get the polymer following lab procedures. Then the students made small toys by pouring polymer into clay molds they made in art class (pictured right – the brown items: shells, lips et.c are the PLA polymer, the grey figures are clay molds.). Since it does biodegrade the students were even encouraged to compost it. They were really enthusiastic about green chemistry.
Dr. Etzkorn also studies neural tube defects in mice with Dr. Hrubec, her collaborator. In the experiments, the control mice start getting neural tube disorder at a shocking rate of 20%, leading to many control experiments to see what was causing it. One suspect turned out to be from our every day tap water: epilepsy and bipolar disorder medication Cardamazepine. Dr. Etzkorn explains: “We cannot get any water that doesn’t have it to some extent and the mice are very sensitive to these agents.” The second suspect is a quaternary ammonium compound used to sanitize the lab. More experiments have yet to be conducted to determine the culprit.
AGC congratulates the diverse work that Dr. Etzkorn does with green chemistry and environmental health sciences and wishes her success in the future.
For my second interview in the Virginia Tech series, I had the privilege of interviewing Dr. Richard Turner. Like Dr. Long, he worked in the chemical industry and saw that most of the companies that practice green chemistry do so for regulatory and financial reasons. While working in the private sector Dr. Turner worked on plastics made without solvents – in ‘melt phase reactions.’ Melt phase processes eliminate energy consuming steps or the need to add something else to the waste stream. They are inherently more environmentally friendly. They work by placing solids (which don’t react very fast) into solution so that the molecules can have the mobility to find each other and react.
In his own labs on campus, Dr. Turner has a few projects in melt phase rather than in solution as described above. His lab is also trying to make polymers that capture carbon dioxide. He describes:
“Carbon dioxide build-up in the atmosphere is going to be an increasingly large issue – we have to invest in the research now to learn how to capture and sequester the carbon dioxide. Polymer particles have huge surface areas, with ligands that can capture CO2. The sorbent (“a material used to absorb liquids or gases,” according to Wikipedia; yes, I had to look it up) and ligands capture CO2 and then moves it to reactor where it releases it, concentrating the CO2.”
Dr. Turner is also on the science advisory board of the company, Novomer, which was featured in a previous article on converting oranges to plastic. He works on biodegradability and reducing the overall energy footprint. “We have to make sure we do really tough and detailed analysis of our choices.”
In the classroom, Dr. Turner teaches a course called: “Future Industrial Professionals in Science and Engineering”. The course caters to scientists and engineers who want to go into industry. He divides the class into groups who run individual projects; this year all the projects were sustainability driven. There were three projects in total: the first worked to extend the shelf life of food; the second worked to improve battery life; the third worked to make a better membrane for reverse osmosis.
Outside of his own class, Dr. Turner was impressed with Tech’s sustainability. He discussed the accomplishments of the College of Natural Resources and the Environment, while also noting the strong Renewable Resources Group.
AGC applauds Dr. Turner’s hard work with sustainable chemistry, and hopes it serves as inspiration to other chemists.
This interview was inspired by my latest infatuation with my etsy shop. My inspiration for starting an ‘store’ on etsy was Inedible Jewelry. They are a polymer clay jewelry business in the lovely city of Charlottesville, making replicas of everyday foods with PVC. The ladies of Inedible Jewelry, Jessica and Susan Partain, are at our local farmer’s market every weekend selling their latest miniature creations. Taking the opportunity to see their studio and learn more about the chemistry behind polymer clay, I set up an interview with Jessica Partain in her workshop (see picture to left).
I interrupted her in the middle of placing holiday orders, in her studio filled with doll-house sized desserts, drinks, fruits, vegetables, etc. The main material used to make these bit-sized creations is PVC. I started the interview asking about the chemical concerns with PVC over the past decade. Jessica explained: “While the formulation of PVC itself has not changed, both of the polymer clays that I work with (97% Premo, 3% Sculpey, both manufactured by polyform products) were reformulated in 2008 to be phthalate-free and lead-free.” Phthalates, which are also endocrine disruptors, used to be a concern for the sculptors before the reform because baking the clay would release them, consequently allowing them to be inhaled by the artist. Jessica also explained: The clay she uses is also ASTM certified, making the product safe. “They’ve run it past medical experts and biochemists looking specifically for potentially harmful interactions between the material and the artist.” This made me proud of my fellow medical experts and biochemists, doing good in the world.
Jessica and Susan have also always used a separate toaster in a well-ventilated room for their polymer baking, making creations such as the cupcake earrings to the right. They use a separate toaster to ensure that they would not combine their cooking with their polymer. One concern that still remains is when the clay is burnt, from baking for too long or from baking at too high a temperature – releasing toxic HCl gas.
As a loyal customer, I asked her: “What do you do with annoying customers like myself, who also ask all these difficult chemistry questions before a purchase.” She answered: “Well, you are one of two people asking me these questions in past 22 years; and the other person who asked did not have much basis for her questioning.” I felt like a major nerd at that moment – 8 years of intense science back ground can do that to you.
Although most customers do not ask about the chemistry behind polymer clay, many worry about the metals used in the jewelry. I then asked “Is this because they are worried about the toxic chemicals in metals?” That was strike two for Nerd Mana. The real reason is because many people are allergic to certain metals. To combat this problem, Inedible Jewelry uses 925 Sterling Silver for their necklaces.925 indicates the silver is 92.5% silver, and 7.5% copper. Jessica explained that the copper allows for 925 Sterling Silver to hold its shape because 100% silver is too malleable. All her metals are nickel free to avoid allergic reactions that lead to inflammation.
AGC loves the work of Inedible Jewelry and is impressed with their knowledge of chemistry and toxicology as it applies to their work. We all have a necklace with a polymer clay pendant. So far our collection includes: a peppermint, a gingerbread man, and a rainbow cake (mine!). The equally festive peach pies are pictures to the left where each miniature peach slice is crafted by hand.
Written by Mana Sassanpour
Being a recent graduate of the University of Virginia, it is a little hard for me to write this article on all the innovation and leadership that is happening at Virginia Tech in the field of Green Chemistry (note: the two schools are notorious rivals). However, this is one topic on which I must concede: Tech just does it better.
To begin my series of Green Chemistry interviews with faculty and staff at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (also known as Virginia Tech, VTech, and Tech), I interviewed Dr. Timothy Long. Dr. Long’s dedication to greener chemistry can be seen in both his teaching and in his research. I had the privileged opportunity to discuss his background, career at Tech, and plans for the future.
After receiving his PhD in chemistry, Dr. Long spent nine years in the chemical industry, where his passion for greener processes developed. He described: “they (industry) were very aware of green chemistry, motivated by economics and affordability.” Once exposed to this mentality, Dr. Long got passionate and wanted to see how to apply this mentality to his research and teaching. When he came to VTech twelve years ago he wanted a more sustainable way of doing things. He described: “I want to weave the principles of green chemistry into my teachings and research.”
A major contribution from Dr. Long’s lab is the more sustainable production of PSA (pressure sensitive adhesive used in many forms of tape and sticky notes). Previously, these compounds used petroleum-derived precursors that had terminal ester bonds. Dr. Long’s polyesters have that same ester bond but in the middle of the polymer. This structural change allows the compound to be made without solvent, while also allowing biodegradability. Killing two green chemistry birds with one stone.
Virginia Tech offers a course in green chemistry taught alternatively by Dr. Long and Dr. Etzkorn. It is a 4000 level class for undergraduates which caters to mainly to chemistry, biology, and business majors. Each semester the course has 45 students. The course takes an interdisciplinary approach to green chemistry as it integrates the science and concepts with society. It seeks to understand how chemistry is perceived in the wider community. While there is no green chemistry minor at Tech, the engineering school has a green engineering minor. Dr. Long also wants to make the green chemistry course mandatory for chemistry graduates. Currently he is submitting a proposal for a nanoscience degree at the University that would incorporate fundamentals of toxicology, essential for our upcoming chemists.
Dr. Long described the passion of Tech’s students to be more sustainable, commenting on their successful Earth Week each year and the increasing amounts of activity on campus. Tech is also hosting the World Polymer Conference next year – which is geared to making a more sustainable, healthy, and safer world.
AGC wishes Dr. Long success in all these ventures and applauds his success thus far.
Interview by: Mana Sassanpour, AGC
This figure is taken from Green chemistry: state of the art through an analysis of the literature by V. Dichiarante, D. Ravelli and A. Albini. Green Chemistry Letter and Reviews Vol. 3, No. 2, June 2010, 105-113.
Mana gave an overview of green chemistry, Paul Anastas and John Warner’s 12 principles of green chemistry, followed by a description of Advancing Green Chemistry’s involvement in the field.
Mana: “The discussion that followed after the lecture was phenomenal! Almost everyone who attended the lecture asked a question. I had never seen such an involved group of students!”
We started off discussing endocrine disrupting chemicals, for example: bisphenol A (BPA). What exposure level is safe? Really large amounts are harmful, but so are really tiny amounts – the correlation is not linear. We proceeded to discuss how we could test compounds for toxicity if the correlation is not linear. This led to a discussion on general methods for testing for toxicity, what the current standards are and how we could do better. We discussed the ethical concerns around animal testing and other tools.
The students were curious to find out what some of the common sources of BPA exposure are, and were surprised to find out that it is found in many disposable water bottles and plastic containers. A concerned student then asked for advice on how to avoid BPA. The response was: don’t use plastic food containers – but if you do, definitely do not microwave food in them because that allows the BPA and other contaminants to leach into your food. Store food in glass jars instead.
The ladies in the crowd then opened a discussion on cosmetics. Like many, they had never considered the chemicals in their beauty products. We talked about how many chapsticks and lip balms have oxybenzone in them – a component that acts as a sunscreen but is also a carcinogen. Most girls in the room immediately reached for their chapsticks to look at ingredients. A hand darted up to ask me “My chapstick has 6% oxybenzone – should I throw it away?” From this topic we went on to discuss how many sunscreen components do not degrade and go into our rivers and affect the reproductive anatomy of frogs and fish. This then led to how effects on amphibians predict effects on humans.
Needless to say, the conversation was great – filled with great facts, questions, and laughs!