Producing biopesticides, particularly when the objective is to maintain an environment that promotes the growth of a living organism, often requires very stringent control of process conditions. One example is large-scale production of baculovirus isolate.
Traditional in vivo production involved feeding the virus to insect larva. The temperature must be maintained carefully between 20-26 C to keep the larva alive. To produce the highest yield and quality of virus, the virus must be harvested from the larvae at the proper time in the life cycle of the larval species.
For example, in development of the baculovirus Lymantria dispar, the virus multiplies up through the fourth host molting by the host larva, and it then decreases after the fifth molting. To separate the virus from the larval bodies at this critical step, water or another solvent must be added and the mixture blended, and then filtered to isolate the virus (Mishra, 1998). To ensure success and high yield, careful attention must be paid to all processing parameters.
This example of stringent process control requirements for production of baculovirus isolate illustrates the high complexity (and costs) associated with manufacturing.